Exploring The Ancient City Of Pergamon

Post author Nick

Written by our local expert Nick

Nick is digital nomad originally from Athens, Greece. You will now find him exploring the Greek islands, Bulgaria and beyond.

Turkey Travel Blog_Ancient City Of Pergamon Turkey

Welcome to Pergamon, one of the most ancient and captivating cities in Turkey. This historical gem boasts a wealth of sights that will transport you back in time to when empires rose and fell. From its towering Acropolis to the Temple of Trajan, this city has it all.

Whether you’re a history buff or simply looking for an adventure, Pergamon is sure to leave you breathless with awe-inspiring architecture and fascinating ruins waiting to be explored.

So join us as we take a journey through Pergamon’s top sights – trust us, there’s plenty not to miss!

Introduction To Pergamon Ancient City

Ruins in ancient city of Pergamon, Turkey

Pergamon, also known as Pergamum, was an ancient city located in present-day Turkey. It holds significant historical and archaeological importance. Here is an introduction to the Pergamon ancient city:

Pergamon was situated in the region known as Mysia, in western Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). It was strategically located on a prominent hill overlooking the Caicus River, offering a commanding view of the surrounding landscape.

The city was founded in the 3rd century BCE by the Greek king Attalus I. Over time, it became the capital of the Attalid Kingdom and later came under Roman rule. Pergamon thrived as a center of culture, learning, and political power.

Pergamon was renowned for its cultural achievements and intellectual pursuits. The city boasted a famous library, second only to the Library of Alexandria, which housed numerous manuscripts and attracted scholars and philosophers. Parchment, known as “pergamon” or “pergamene,” was invented here. Pergamon was adorned with impressive monuments and structures. Some of the notable architectural wonders include the Pergamon Altar, a massive Hellenistic structure featuring intricate sculptures; the Great Theatre, one of the steepest and most well-preserved theaters of the ancient world; and the Temple of Trajan, dedicated to the Roman Emperor Trajan.

Pergamon was also known for its advanced medical facilities. The Asclepion, a sanctuary dedicated to the god of healing, Asclepius, served as a medical complex offering treatments and therapies. It attracted patients seeking medical care from various regions. Pergamon faced decline and eventual abandonment in the 7th century CE due to various factors, including invasions and earthquakes. However, its ruins and artifacts have been extensively excavated and studied by archaeologists, providing valuable insights into the city’s history, architecture, and culture.

Today, the archaeological site of Pergamon is a popular tourist destination, recognized as a Turkish UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can explore the remains of the city, including its temples, theaters, and ancient streets, and marvel at the rich heritage and grandeur of this once-thriving ancient city.

Map Of Pergamon

Top Sights At Pergamon

When visiting the archaeological site of Pergamon, here are some of the top sights not to miss;

Pergamon Acropolis

The Acropolis of Pergamon is the main attraction, located on top of a hill. It offers panoramic views of the surrounding area and is home to several remarkable structures and monuments.

Pergamon Theater

Pergamon Theater

The Great Theater of Pergamon is a well-preserved ancient theater that could accommodate up to 10,000 spectators. It is renowned for its impressive architectural design and excellent acoustics.

Pergamon Altar

The Pergamon Altar is a monumental structure originally dedicated to Zeus and Athena. Although the original altar is now housed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, a replica on-site provides an understanding of its grandeur and intricate sculptures.

Temple of Trajan

This Roman temple was built in honor of the Roman Emperor Trajan. Its ruins showcase the architectural style and influence of the Roman period.

Pergamon Library

Although the ancient library of Pergamon no longer exists, the remains of the building and its impressive facade can still be seen. It serves as a reminder of the city’s intellectual and cultural importance.


Located outside the main archaeological site, the Asclepion was a healing center dedicated to the god Asclepius. It consists of various structures, including a theater, thermal baths, and treatment rooms.

Pergamon Museum

In the nearby town of Bergama, the Pergamon Museum houses a collection of artifacts excavated from the ancient city, including the Pergamon Altar frieze. It is worth visiting to gain a deeper understanding of Pergamon’s history and see the original artifacts.

Exploring these sights will offer a glimpse into the grandeur and cultural significance of Pergamon in its prime.

How Long Should You Spend In Pergamon

Ancient City Of Pergamon

The amount of time you should spend in Pergamon depends on your interests and the depth of exploration you prefer. Generally, a visit of one full day is recommended to fully appreciate the archaeological site and its major attractions. This allows you to explore the Acropolis, visit the theater, admire the Altar of Pergamon replica, and explore other notable structures like the Temple of Trajan.

If you have a keen interest in history and archaeology, or if you want to explore the site at a leisurely pace, you might consider extending your visit to two days. This additional time allows for a more in-depth exploration of the site, including visits to the Asclepion and the Pergamon Museum in the nearby town of Bergama.

Keep in mind that Pergamon is a vast site with a lot to see, so it’s important to allocate enough time to fully appreciate its historical and architectural significance. Also, be prepared for walking and wear comfortable shoes as you explore the site, as it involves some uphill and uneven terrain.

Where To Stay In Pergamon Or Nearby

When visiting Pergamon or nearby Bergama, you have a few options for accommodation. If you plan to visit the archaeological site multiple times or want to have an early start, staying in or near Bergama would be more suitable. However, if you want a beachside retreat or a city experience, exploring options in Ayvalik, Dikili, or Izmir might be more suitable. Here are some suggestions for places to stay in Pergamon or in close proximity:


The town of Bergama is located near the archaeological site of Pergamon and offers various accommodation options, including hotels and guesthouses. Staying in Bergama allows for easy access to the site and provides additional amenities and services.

Thermal Hotels

There are a few thermal hotels located in the vicinity of Bergama, offering wellness and relaxation facilities. These hotels provide hot springs and thermal baths, allowing you to unwind after exploring the ancient ruins.


Ayvalik is a coastal town located approximately 80 kilometers west of Bergama. It offers a range of hotels and resorts along its beautiful beaches. While it is a bit farther from Pergamon, it provides a seaside retreat and an opportunity to explore the Aegean Coast.


Dikili is another coastal town located about 60 kilometers northwest of Bergama. It features hotels and resorts with beach access, making it a relaxing base for your visit to Pergamon.


If you prefer a larger city experience, Izmir is approximately 100 kilometers southwest of Bergama. It offers a wide range of accommodation options, including luxury hotels, budget accommodations, and boutique hotels. Staying in Izmir allows you to explore the city’s vibrant culture and enjoy its amenities while still having the option to visit Pergamon on a day trip.


Pergamon Wrap Up

Pergamon Ancient City is a fantastic destination for anyone looking to experience the rich history of Turkey. With its vast array of historical sites, it’s easy to get lost in the beauty and culture of this place. We hope that our guide has inspired you to plan your own trip to Pergamon Ancient City.

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